The language of the Database Engine, Transact-SQL, has the same basic features as other common programming languages: Literal values (also called constants)DelimitersCommentsIdentifiersReserved keywords The following sections describe these … [Read more...] about SQL’s Basic Objects (Literal values, Delimiters, Comments, Identifiers)

# SQL Components - SQL Server 2012

This chapter introduces the elementary objects and basic operators supported by the Transact-SQL language. First, the basic language elements, including constants, identifiers, and delimiters, are described. Then, because every elementary object has a corresponding data type, data types are discussed in detail. Additionally, all existing operators and functions are explained. At the end of the chapter, NULL values are introduced.

## Data Types (Numeric, Character, Temporal etc)

All the data values of a column must be of the same data type. (The only exception specifies the values of the SQL_VARIANT data type.) Transact-SQL uses different data types, which can be categorized as follows: Numeric data typesCharacter data … [Read more...] about Data Types (Numeric, Character, Temporal etc)

## Storage Options (FILESTREAM, Sparse columns)

Since SQL Server 2008, there are two different storage options, each of which allows you to store LOBs and to save storage space: FILESTREAMSparse columns The following subsections describe these options. FILESTREAM Storage As you already … [Read more...] about Storage Options (FILESTREAM, Sparse columns)

## Transact-SQL Functions (Aggregate, Scalar)

Transact-SQL functions can be either aggregate functions or scalar functions. The following sections describe these function types. Aggregate Functions Aggregate functions are applied to a group of data values from a column. Aggregate functions … [Read more...] about Transact-SQL Functions (Aggregate, Scalar)

## Scalar Operators, Global Variables

Scalar operators are used for operations with scalar values. Transact-SQL supports numeric and Boolean operators as well as concatenation. There are unary and binary arithmetic operators. Unary operators are + and – (as signs). Binary arithmetic … [Read more...] about Scalar Operators, Global Variables

## NULL Values in SQL Server

A NULL value is a special value that may be assigned to a column. This value normally is used when information in a column is unknown or not applicable. For example, in the case of an unknown home telephone number for a company’s employee, it is … [Read more...] about NULL Values in SQL Server